The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus, opening at the top of the vagina during birth. Cervical cancer is caused when the cells in the cervix begin to change and grow. This is also called dysplasia. The cells can become malignant and the cancer can spread to the uterus and surrounding organs.
The highest risk factor for developing cervical cancer is carrying the human papillomavirus, (HPV). Not all women carrying the virus will develop cervical cancer, but it is important for women who know they carry the virus to have an annual Pap smear to check for changes in cervical cells.
According to the National Cancer Institute, more than 11,000 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the United States this year.
There are not usually noticeable symptoms of cervical cancer, making it critical for women to have yearly Pap smears to check for abnormal cells. However, some women do experience symptoms. These may include:
These symptoms can be caused by cancer or other conditions. Typically these symptoms are not signs of cancer, but in the interest of their best health, women should seek the guidance of an experienced gynecologist. If there is a concern, or a biopsy comes back with possible signs of cancer, you will be referred to a gynecological oncologist.
The Johns Hopkins Kelly Gynecologic Oncology Service is one of the world leaders in oncology care for women with cancer of the female reproductive tract. Our patients have twice the survival rates of patients of those not treated by a cancer specialist, which is why it is so important to be evaluated by an experienced gynecological oncologist at the onset of disease.
When evaluated for cervical cancer, your doctor will take a complete medical and family history as well as perform a pelvic exam to examine the organs of the female reproductive tract for any changes in size or shape. The following tests may be ordered by your doctor to fully evaluate you for cervical cancer.
If cancer is found in the biopsy, then your gynecological oncologist will create an individualized treatment plan for you, involving the whole patient and multidisciplinary care. Our team of experienced gynecologic oncologists treats cervical cancer in women with nationally recognized high success rates and outcomes.
Treatment for cervical cancer may include: